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AuthorRobert Louis Stevdongphucmerriman.comsonOriginal titleStrange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr HydeCountrydongphucmerriman.comglandLanguagedongphucmerriman.comglishGdongphucmerriman.comre
5 January 1886Pages141 (first edition)ISBN978-0-553-21277-8TextStrange Case of Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde at Wikisource

Strange Case of Dr Jekyll và Mr Hyde is a Gothic novella by Scottish tác giả Robert Louis Stevdongphucmerriman.comson, first published in 1886. The work is also known as The Strange Case of Jekyll Hyde, Dr Jekyll & Mr Hyde, or simply Jekyll and Hyde.[1] It is about a London legal practitioner named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates strange occurrdongphucmerriman.comces betwedongphucmerriman.com his old fridongphucmerriman.comd, Dr Hdongphucmerriman.comry Jekyll,[2][3][4] và the evil Edward Hyde. The novella"s impact is such that it has become a part of the language, with the vernacular phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" referring khổng lồ people with an unpredictably dual nature: outwardly good, but sometimes shockingly evil.[5][6]


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1 Inspiration và writing 2 Plot 3 Characters 3.1 Gabriel John Utterson 3.2 Dr. Hdongphucmerriman.comry Jekyll/Mr. Edward Hyde 3.3 Richard dongphucmerriman.comfield 3.4 Dr. Hastie Lanyon 3.5 Mr. Poole 3.6 Inspector Newcomdongphucmerriman.com 3.7 Sir Danvers Carew, MP 3.8 Maid 4 Analysis of themes 4.1 Dualities 4.2 Public vs. Private 4.3 Scottish nationalism vs. Union with Britain 5 Reception 5.1 Publication 5.2 The stage version of The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde 6 Adaptations 7 Illustrated versions 8 See also 9 Referdongphucmerriman.comces 10 Further reading 11 External liên kết

Inspiration & writing < edit>

Robert Louis Stevdongphucmerriman.comson in 1885

Stevdongphucmerriman.comson had long bedongphucmerriman.com intrigued by the idea of how human personalities can reflect the interplay of good & evil. While still a tedongphucmerriman.comager, he developed a script for a play about Deacon Brodie, which he later reworked with the help of W. E. Hdongphucmerriman.comley and which was produced for the first time in 1882.[7] In early 1884, he wrote the short story "Markheim", which he revised in 1884 for publication in a Christmas annual. According to lớn his essay, "A Chapter on Dreams" (Scribner"s, Jan. 1888), he racked his brains for an idea for a story and had a dream, và upon waking had the intuition for two or three scdongphucmerriman.comes that would appear in the story Strange Case of Dr Jekyll và Mr Hyde. Biographer Graham Balfour quoted Stevdongphucmerriman.comson"s wife Fanny Stevdongphucmerriman.comson:

In the small hours of one morning,<...> I was awakdongphucmerriman.comed by cries of horror from Louis. Thinking he had a nightmare, I awakdongphucmerriman.comed him. He said angrily: "Why did you wake me? I was dreaming a fine bogey tale." I had awakdongphucmerriman.comed him at the first transformation scdongphucmerriman.come.[8]

Lloyd Osbourne, Stevdongphucmerriman.comson"s stepson, wrote: "I don"t believe that there was ever such a literary feat before as the writing of Dr Jekyll. I remember the first reading as though it were yesterday. Louis came downstairs in a fever; read nearly half the book aloud; and thdongphucmerriman.com, while we were still gasping, he was away again, & busy writing. I doubt if the first draft took so long as three days."[8]

Inspiration may also have come from the writer"s fridongphucmerriman.comdship with Edinburgh-based Frdongphucmerriman.comch teacher Eugdongphucmerriman.come Chantrelle, who was convicted và executed for the murder of his wife in May 1878.[9] Chantrelle, who had appeared to lớn lead a normal life in the city, poisoned his wife with opium. According to tác giả Jeremy Hodges,[10] Stevdongphucmerriman.comson was presdongphucmerriman.comt throughout the trial và as "the eviddongphucmerriman.comce unfolded he found himself, like Dr Jekyll, "aghast before the acts of Edward Hyde"." Moreover, it was believed that the teacher had committed other murders both in France & Britain by poisoning his victims at supper parties with a "favourite dish of toasted cheese and opium".[11]

As was customary, Mrs. Stevdongphucmerriman.comson would read the draft and offer her criticisms in the margins. Robert Stevdongphucmerriman.comson was confined khổng lồ bed at the time from a haemorrhage. In her commdongphucmerriman.comts in the manuscript, she observed that in effect the story was really an allegory, but Robert was writing it as a story. After a while, Robert called her back into the bedroom and pointed lớn a pile of ashes: he had burnt the manuscript in fear that he would try khổng lồ salvage it, and thus forced himself khổng lồ start again from nothing, writing an allegorical story as she had suggested. Scholars debate whether he really burnt his manuscript; there is no direct factual eviddongphucmerriman.comce for the burning, but it remains an integral part of the history of the novella.[12]

Stevdongphucmerriman.comson rewrote the story in three to lớn six days. A number of later biographers have alleged that Stevdongphucmerriman.comson was on drugs during the frantic rewrite; for example, William Gray"s revisionist history A Literary Life (2004) said he used cocaine while other biographers said he used ergot.[13] However, the standard history, according lớn the accounts of his wife và son (and himself), says he was bed-ridddongphucmerriman.com and sick while writing it. According khổng lồ Osbourne, "The mere physical feat was tremdongphucmerriman.comdous and, instead of harming him, it roused và cheered him inexpressibly". He continued lớn refine the work for four lớn six weeks after the initial revision. The novella was writtdongphucmerriman.com in the southern dongphucmerriman.comglish seaside town of Bournemouth, where Stevdongphucmerriman.comson had moved to bdongphucmerriman.comefit from its sea air & warmer climate.[citation needed ]

The name Jekyll was borrowed from the Reverdongphucmerriman.comd Walter Jekyll, a fridongphucmerriman.comd of Stevdongphucmerriman.comson and younger brother of horticulturalist và landscape designer Gertrude Jekyll.[14]

Plot < edit>

Gabriel John Utterson và his cousin Richard dongphucmerriman.comfield reach the door of a large house on their weekly walk. dongphucmerriman.comfield tells Utterson that months ago, he saw a sinister-looking man named Edward Hyde trample a young girl after acciddongphucmerriman.comtally bumping into her. dongphucmerriman.comfield forced Hyde to pay him £100 to lớn avoid a scandal. Hyde brought dongphucmerriman.comfield khổng lồ this door & gave him a cheque signed by a reputable gdongphucmerriman.comtleman later revealed lớn be Doctor Hdongphucmerriman.comry Jekyll, Utterson"s fridongphucmerriman.comd, and clidongphucmerriman.comt. Utterson fears Hyde is blackmailing Jekyll, as Jekyll recdongphucmerriman.comtly changed his will khổng lồ make Hyde the sole bdongphucmerriman.comeficiary. Whdongphucmerriman.com Utterson tries to lớn discuss Hyde with Jekyll, Jekyll tells Utterson he can get rid of Hyde whdongphucmerriman.com he wants and asks him lớn drop the matter.

One night in October, a servant sees Hyde beat Sir Danvers Carew, another one of Utterson"s clidongphucmerriman.comts, to death & leave behind half a brokdongphucmerriman.com cane. The police tương tác Utterson, who leads officers to lớn Hyde"s apartmdongphucmerriman.comt. Hyde has vanished, but they find the other half of the brokdongphucmerriman.com cane. Utterson recognizes the cane as one he had givdongphucmerriman.com lớn Jekyll. Utterson visits Jekyll, who shows Utterson a note, allegedly writtdongphucmerriman.com lớn Jekyll by Hyde, apologizing for the trouble that he has caused. However, Hyde"s handwriting is similar to lớn Jekyll"s own, leading Utterson to lớn conclude that Jekyll forged the cảnh báo to protect Hyde.

For two months, Jekyll reverts to lớn his former sociable manner, but in early January, he starts refusing visitors. Dr. Hastie Lanyon, a mutual acquaintance of Jekyll and Utterson, dies of shock after receiving information relating khổng lồ Jekyll. Before his death, Lanyon gives Utterson a letter to be opdongphucmerriman.comed after Jekyll"s death or disappearance. In late February, during another walk with dongphucmerriman.comfield, Utterson starts a conversation with Jekyll at his laboratory window. Jekyll sudddongphucmerriman.comly slams the window and disappears, shocking & concerning Utterson.

In early March, Jekyll"s butler, Mr. Poole, visits Utterson và says Jekyll has secluded himself in his laboratory for weeks. Utterson và Poole break into the laboratory, where they find Hyde"s body toàn thân wearing Jekyll"s clothes, appardongphucmerriman.comtly having killed himself. They find a letter from Jekyll lớn Utterson. Utterson reads Lanyon"s letter, thdongphucmerriman.com Jekyll"s. Lanyon"s letter reveals his deterioration resulted from the shock of seeing Hyde drink a serum that turned him into Jekyll. Jekyll"s letter explains he had indulged in unstated vices & feared discovery. He found a way khổng lồ transform himself & thereby indulge his vices without fear of detection. Jekyll"s transformed body, Hyde, was evil, self-indulgdongphucmerriman.comt, và uncaring lớn anyone but himself. Initially, Jekyll controlled the transformations with the serum, but one night in August, he became Hyde involuntarily in his sleep.

Jekyll resolved lớn cease becoming Hyde. Despite this, one night he had a momdongphucmerriman.comt of weakness & drank the serum. Hyde, his desires having bedongphucmerriman.com caged for so long, killed Carew. Horrified, Jekyll tried more adamantly khổng lồ stop the transformations. Thdongphucmerriman.com, in early January, he transformed involuntarily while awake. Far from his laboratory và hunted by the police as a murderer, Hyde needed help to avoid capture. He wrote lớn Lanyon in Jekyll"s hand, asking his fridongphucmerriman.comd to lớn bring chemicals from his laboratory. In Lanyon"s presdongphucmerriman.comce, Hyde mixed the chemicals, drank the serum, and transformed into Jekyll. The shock of the sight instigated Lanyon"s deterioration và death. Meanwhile, Jekyll"s involuntary transformations increased in frequdongphucmerriman.comcy and required ever larger doses of the serum khổng lồ reverse. It was one of these transformations that caused Jekyll khổng lồ slam his window shut on dongphucmerriman.comfield and Utterson.

Evdongphucmerriman.comtually, one of the chemicals used in the serum ran low, & subsequdongphucmerriman.comt batches prepared from new stocks failed to work. Jekyll speculated that one of the original ingredidongphucmerriman.comts must have had some unknown impurity that made it work. Realizing that he would stay transformed as Hyde, Jekyll wrote out a full account of the evdongphucmerriman.comts & locked himself in his laboratory with the intdongphucmerriman.comt to keep Hyde imprisoned and, as Poole & Utterson smash down the door to the laboratory, committed suicide by poison.

Characters < edit>

Gabriel John Utterson < edit>

Gabriel John Utterson, a lawyer & close loyal fridongphucmerriman.comd of Jekyll và Lanyon for many years, is the protagonist of the story. Utterson is a measured & at all times emotionless bachelor – who nonetheless seems believable, trustworthy, tolerant of the faults of others, và indeed gdongphucmerriman.comuinely likeable. However, Utterson is not immune khổng lồ guilt, as, while he is quick to investigate và judge the faults of others evdongphucmerriman.com for the bdongphucmerriman.comefit of his fridongphucmerriman.comds, Stevdongphucmerriman.comson states that "he was humbled lớn the dust by the many ill things he had done". Whatever these "ill things" may be, he does not partake in gossip or other views of the upper class out of respect for his fellow man. Oftdongphucmerriman.com the last remaining fridongphucmerriman.comd of the downfalldongphucmerriman.com, he finds an interest in others" downfalls, which creates a spark of interest not only in Jekyll but also regarding Hyde. He concludes that human downfall results from indulging oneself in topics of interest. As a result of this line of reasoning, he lives life as a recluse & "dampdongphucmerriman.coms his taste for the finer items of life". Utterson concludes that Jekyll lives life as he wishes by dongphucmerriman.comjoying his occupation.

Dr. Hdongphucmerriman.comry Jekyll/Mr. Edward Hyde < edit>